Buying and Selling


Catalogues can be obtained at deutscher and hackett offices or by subscription (see the Catalogue Subscription Form).

The price range estimated against each lot reflects the opinion of our art specialists as to the hammer price expected for the lot at auction and is informed by realised prices for comparable works as well as the particularities of each lot including condition, quality, provenance and rarity. While presale estimates are intended as a guide for prospective buyers, lots can be sold outside of these ranges. Pre-sale estimates include GST (if any) on a lot but do not include the buyer’s premium or other charges where applicable..

The reserve is the minimum price including GST (if any) that the vendor will accept for a lot and below which the lot will not normally be sold.

In both Sydney and Melbourne are scheduled for several days in advance of each auction. deutscher and hackett specialists are available to give obligation free advice at viewings or by appointment and prospective buyers are strongly encouraged to thoroughly examine and request condition reports for potential purchases. Pre-auction viewings are open to the public and are free to attend.



Unless ownership is clearly stated in the provenance, this symbol is used where a lot is offered which deutscher and  hackett or an affiliate owns in whole or in part. In these instances, deutscher and hackett has a direct financial interest in the property or means that deutscher and hackett has guaranteed a minimum price.

  *Used to indicate lots for sale without a reserve.

All information published in deutscher and hackett catalogues represent statements of opinion and should not be relied upon as fact. All dimensions are listed in centimetres, height before width and are approximate. All prices are in Australian dollars.

All reference to artists make use of common and not full names in accordance with the standards outlined in the National Gallery of Australia reference publication Australian Art: Artist’s working names authority list. For instance, John Brack rather than Cecil John Brack; Roy de Maistre rather than Leroy Leveson Laurent De Maistre; Rosalie Gascoigne rather than Rosalie Norah Gascoigne.


Terms used have the meanings ascribed to them below:
a. NICHOLAS CHEVALIER: in the opinion of deutscher and hackett, a work by the artist.
b. Attributed to NICHOLAS CHEVALIER: in the opinion of deutscher and hackett, probably a work by the artist, in whole or in part.
c. Circle of NICHOLAS CHEVALIER: in the opinion of deutscher and hackett, a work showing the influence and style of the artist and of the artist’s period.
d. Studio/Workshop of NICHOLAS CHEVALIER: in the opinion of deutscher and hackett, a work possibly executed under the supervision of the artist.
e. School of NICHOLAS CHEVALIER: in the opinion of deutscher and hackett, a work by a follower or student of the artist.
f. Manner of NICHOLAS CHEVALIER: in the opinion of deutscher and hackett, a work created in the style, but not necessarily in the period, of the artist.
g. After NICHOLAS CHEVALIER: in the opinion of deutscher and hackett, a copy of a work by the artist.
h. “signed” / “dated” in the opinion of deutscher and hackett, the work has been signed/ dated by the artist.
i. “bears signature” / “bears date” in the opinion of deutscher and hackett, the work has possibly been signed/dated by someone other than the artist.

Where appropriate, deutscher and hackett will include the known provenance, or history of ownership of lots. Non disclosure may indicate that prior owners are unknown or that the seller wishes to maintain confidentiality.


Auctions are open to the public and are free to attend. deutscher and hackett may exclude any person at any time in its discretion.

Bidders must register to bid prior to the commencement of an auction. deutscher and hackett may impose other obligations on the registration of bidders in its discretion.

Lots are offered for sale on a consecutive basis. deutscher  and hackett will determine the conduct of the auction in its absolute discretion, including the regulation of bidding. Consecutive or responsive bids may be placed by the auctioneer on behalf of the vendor up to the reserve.

As a courtesy service, deutscher and hackett will make reasonable efforts to place bids for prospective buyers in absentia provided written or verbal instructions (as indicated on absentee bid forms included online) are received 24 hours prior to auction. Where successful, lots will be purchased at the lowest possible bid and in the event of identical absentee bids, the bid received earliest will take precedence. deutscher and hackett accepts no responsibility for errors and omissions in relation to this courtesy service and reserves the right to record telephone bids.


Unless indicated otherwise, all lots are subject to a confidential reserve price determined by the vendor. deutscher and hackett or the auctioneer may place any number of bids on behalf of the vendor below the reserve price and is not obliged to identify that the bids are being placed on behalf of the vendor.

Bidding usually opens below the listed pre-sale estimate and proceeds in the following increments:

$500 — $1,000 by $50
$1,000 — $2,000 by $100
$2,000 — $3,000 by $200
$3,000 — $5,000 by $200 / $500 / $800
$5,000 — $10,000 by $500
$10,000 — $20,000 by $1,000
$20,000 — $30,000 by $2,000
$30,000 — $50,000 by $2,000 / $5,000 / $8,000
$50,000 — $100,000 by $5,000
$100,000 — $200,000 by $10,000
$200,000 — $300,000 by $20,000
$300,000 — $500,000 by $20,000 / $50,000 / $80,000
$500, 000 — $1,000,000 by $50,000
$1,000,000+ by $100,000

The fall of the auctioneer’s hammer indicates the final bid and the buyer assumes full responsibility for the lot from this time.

Where a lot is unsold, the auctioneer will announce that the lot is “bought in”, “passed”, “withdrawn” or “returned to owner”.


Payment must be made within seven days of the date of sale in Australian dollars by cash, cheque, direct deposit, approved credit cards or electronic funds transfer. If payment is made by credit card the price will increase by any merchant fees payable by deutscher and hackett (1.15% (including GST) for Visa and Mastercard and 3.10% (including GST) for American Express). In certain circumstances, extension of payment may be granted at the discretion of deutscher and hackett. Cleared funds will be held in an interest bearing trust account by deutscher and hackett until remitted to the vendor. deutscher and hackett will be entitled to retain any interest earned during this period. Payment by the vendor of any charge to deutscher and hackett is to be made within fourteen days of invoice.

The purchase price will be the sum of the final bid price (including any GST) plus a buyer’s  premium set at 22% (plus GST) of the final bid price. Buyers may be liable for  other charges reasonably incurred once ownership has passed.

Auctions are conducted on a GST inclusive basis (where GST applies). GST is payable on some lots. A list of those lots is set out in the catalogue. Buyers are required to pay a 10% GST which sum is:

a. included in the final bid prices where buying from a GST registered vendor; and

b. included any additional fees charged by deutscher and hackett; and

c. added to the buyer’s premiums.

If a buyer is classified as a “non-resident” for the purpose of GST, the buyer may be able to recover GST paid on the final purchase price if certain conditions are met.

Lots paid for in full may be collected from deutscher and hackett premises the day after the auction occurs but lots paid for by cheque may not be collected until all funds have cleared. Proof of identification is required upon collection and lots not collected within seven days of the sale may incur costs associated with external storage and freight.

Risk in the lot, including risk of loss or damage, will pass to the buyer on either the date payment is due, whether or not it has been made, or on collection by the buyer, whichever is earlier. The buyer is therefore encouraged to make arrangements to ensure comprehensive cover is maintained from the payment due date.

deutscher and hackett directly offers services including storage, hanging and display, appraisals and valuations, collection management and research and in all instances will endeavour to coordinate or advise upon shipping and handling, insurance, transport, framing and conservation at the request and expense of the client. deutscher and hackett does not accept liability for the acts or omissions of contracted third parties.

Prospective bidders are advised to enquire about export licences — including endangered species licences and cultural heritage permits, where relevant — prior to bidding at auction. Telephone the Maritime and Movable Heritage Unit on 02 6274 1810 for further information. The delay or denial of such a licence will not be grounds for a rescission of sale.

The copyright in the images and illustrations contained in this catalogue may be owned by third parties and used under licence by deutscher and hackett. As between deutscher and hackett and the buyer, deutscher and hackett retains all rights in the images and illustrations. deutscher and hackett retains copyright in the text contained in this catalogue. The buyer must not reproduce or otherwise use the images, illustrations or text without prior written consent.